**SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMINOLOGY**

**GENERAL AIRSPEED TERMINOLOGY AND
SYMBOLS**

**KCAS**
Knots Calibrated Airspeed is indicated airspeed corrected for position
and instrument error and expressed in knots. Knots calibrated airspeed is equal
to KTAS in standard atmosphere at sea level.

**KIAS**
Knots Indicated Airspeed is the speed shown on the airspeed indicator and
expressed in knots.

**KTAS**
Knots True Airspeed is the airspeed expressed in knots relative to
undisturbed air which is KOAS corrected for altitude and
temperature.

**V _{A}** Manuevering Speed is the
maximum speed at which you may use abrupt control travel.

**V _{FE}** Maximum Flap Extended
Speed is the highest speed permissible with wing flaps in a prescribed extended
position.

**V _{LE}** Maximum Landing Gear
Extended Speed is the maximum speed at which an airplane can be safely flown
with the landing gear extended.

**V _{LO}** Maximum Landing Gear
Operating Speed is the maximum speed at which the landing gear can be safely
extended or retracted.

**V _{NO}** Maximum Structural
Cruising Speed is the speed that should not be exceeded except in smooth air,
then only with caution.

**V _{NE}** Never Exceed Speed is the
speed limit that may not be exceeded at any time.

**V _{S
}**Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the
airplane is controllable.

**V _{So}** Stalling Speed or the
minimum steady flight speed at So which the airplane is controllable in the
landing configu ration at the most forward center of gravity.

**V _{X}** Best Angle-at-Climb
Speed is the speed which results in the greatest gain of altitude in a given
horizontal distance.

**V _{Y}**

**OAT**
Outside Air Temperature is the free air static temperature. It is
expressed in either degrees Celsius or degrees Fahrenheit.

**Standard
Temperature** is 15 C at sea level pressure altitude and decreases by
2^{0}C for each 1000 feet of altitude. ture

**Pressure
Altitude** *is the altitude read from an altimeter when the
altimeter's barometric scale has been set to 29.92 inches of mercury (1013
mb).*

**BHP**
Brake Horsepower is the power developed by the engine. RPM Revolutions
Per Minute is engine speed.

**MP**
Manifold Pressure is a pressure measured in the engine's induction system
and is expressed in inches of mercury (Hg).

**AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE AND FLIGHT
PLANNING TERMINOLOGY**

**Demonstrated
Crosswind Velocity** is the velocity of the crosswind component for
which adequate control of the airplane during takeoff and landing was actually
demonstrated during certification tests. The value shown is not considered to be
limiting.

**Usable Fuel**
is the fuel available for flight planning.

**Unusable
Fuel** is the quantity of fuel that can not be safely Fuel used in
flight.

**GPH**
Gallons Per Hour is the amount of fuel (in gallons) consumed per
hour.

**NMPG** Nautical Miles Per Gallon is the distance
(in nautical miles) which can be expected per gallon of fuel consumed at a
specific engine power setting and/or flight configuration.

**g** is acceleration due to gravity.

**WEIGHT AND BALANCE
TERMINOLOGY**

**Reference Datum** is an imaginary vertical plane
from Datum which all horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes.

**Station** is a location along the airplane fuselage
given in terms of the distance from the reference datum.

**Arm **is the horizontal distance from the reference
datum to the center of gravity (0.0) of an item.

**Moment** is the product of the weight of an item
multiplied by its arm. (Moment divided by the constant 1000 is used in this
handbook to simplify balance calculations by reduc ing the number of digits.)

**Center of Gravity (CG)** is the point at which an
airplane, or equipment, would balance if suspended. Its distance from the
reference datum is found by dividing the total moment by the total weight of the
airplane.

**Center of Gravity Arm** is the arm obtained by
adding the Arm airplane's individual moments and dividing the sum by the total
weight.

**Center of Gravity Limits** are the extreme center
of gravity Limits locations within which the airplane must be operated at a
given weight.

**Standard Empty Weight** is the weight of a standard
airplane, including unusable fuel, full operating fluids and full engine oil.

**Basic Empty Weight** is the standard empty weight
plus the Weight weight of optional equipment.

**Useful Load** is the difference between ramp weight
and the basic empty weight.

**Maximum Ramp Weight **is the maximum weight
approved for ground maneuver. (It includes the weight of start, taxi and runup
fuel.)

**Maximum Takeoff Weight** is the maximum weight
approved for the start of the takeoff run.

**Maximum Landing Weight** is the maximum weight
approved for the landing touchdown.

**Tare** is the weight of chocks, blocks, stands, etc.
used when weighing an airplane, and is included in the scale readings.
Tare is deducted from the scale reading to obtain the actual (net) airplane
weight.