EMERGENCY OPERATION IN CLOUDS
(Vacuum System Failure)
In the event of a vacuum system
failure during flight, the directional indicator and attitude indicator will be
disabled, and the pilot will have to rely on the turn coordinator if he
inadvertently flies into clouds. The following instructions assume that only the
electrically-powered turn coordinator is operative, and that the pilot is not
completely proficient in instrument flying.
EXECUTING A 180 deg TURN IN CLOUDS
Upon inadvertently entering the clouds, an immediate plan should be made to turn back as follows:
1. Note the compass
2. Note the time of the minute hand and observe the position of the sweep second hand on the clock.
3. When the sweep second hand indicates the nearest half-minute, initiate a standard rate left turn, holding the turn coordinator symbolic airplane wing opposite the lower left index mark for 60 seconds. Then roll back to level flight by leveling the miniature airplane.
4. Check accuracy of the turn by observing the compass heading which should be the reciprocal of the original heading.
5. If necessary, adjust heading primarily with skidding motions rather than rolling motions so that the compass will read more accurately.
6. Maintain altitude and airspeed by cautious application of elevator control. Avoid overcontrolling by keeping the hands off the control wheel as much as possible and steering only with rudder.
EMERGENCY DESCENT THROUGH CLOUDS
If conditions preclude reestablishment of VFR flight by a 180degturn, a descent through a cloud deck to VFR conditions may be appropriate. If possible, obtain radio clearance for an emergency descent through clouds. To guard against a spiral dive, choose an easterly or westerly heading to minimize compass card swings due to changing bank angles. In addition, keep hands off the control wheel and steer a straight course with rudder control by monitoring the turn coordinator. Occasionally check the compass heading and make minor corrections to hold an approximate course. Before descending into the clouds, set up a stabilized let-down condition as follows:
1. Extend landing
2. Apply full rich mixture.
3. Apply full carburetor heat.
4. Reduce power to set up a 500 to 800 ft/mm rate of descent.
5. Adjust the elevator and rudder trim control wheels for a stabilized descent at 80 KIAS.
8. Keep hands off control wheel.
7. Monitor turn coordinator and make corrections by rudder alone.
8. Adjust rudder trim to relieve unbalanced rudder force, if present.
9. Check trend of compass card movement and make cautious corrections with rudder to stop turn.
10. Upon breaking out of clouds, resume normal cruising flight.
RECOVERY FROM A SPIRAL DIVE
If a spiral is encountered, proceed as follows:
1. Close the
2. Stop the turn by using coordinated aileron and rudder control to align the symbolic airplane in the turn coordinator with the horizon reference line.
3. Cautiously apply elevator back pressure to slowly reduce the indicated airspeed to 80 KIAS.
4. Adjust the elevator trim control to maintain an 80 KIAS glide.
5. Keep hands off the control wheel, using rudder control to hold a straight heading. Use rudder trim to relieve unbalanced rudder force, if present.
6. Apply carburetor heat.
7. Clear engine occasionally, but avoid using enough power to disturb the trimmed glide.
8. Upon breaking out of clouds, resume normal cruising flight.
INADVERTENT FLIGHT INTO ICING CONDITIONS
Flight into icing conditions is prohibited. An inadvertent encounter with these conditions can best be handled using the checklist procedures. The best procedure, of course, is to turn back or change altitude to escape icing conditions.
STATIC SOURCE BLOCKED
If erroneous readings of the static source instruments (airspeed, altimeter and vertical speed) are suspected, the alternate static source valve should be pulled on, thereby supplying static pressure to these instruments from the cabin. Cabin pressures will vary with open ventila tors or windows and with airspeed. To avoid the possibility of large errors, the windows should not be open when using the alternate static source.
Intentional spins are prohibited in this airplane. Should an inadvert ent spin occur, the following recovery procedure should be used:
1. RETARD THROTTLE TO IDLE POSITION.
2. PLACE AILERONS IN NEUTRAL POSITION. -
3. APPLY AND HOLD FULL RUDDER OPPOSITE TO THE DIREC TION OF ROTATION.
4. JUST AFTER THE RUDDER REACHES THE STOP, MOVE THE WHEEL BRISKLY FORWARD FAR ENOUGH TO BREAK THE STALL. Full down elevator may be required at aft center of gravity loadings to assure optimum recoveries.
5. HOLD THESE CONTROL INPUTS UNTIL ROTATION STOPS
Premature relaxation of the control inputs may extend the recov ery.
6. AS ROTATION STOPS, NEUTRALIZE RUDDER, AND MAKE A SMOOTH RECOVERY FROM THE RESULTING DIVE.